Santiago 1961 37.7 1962 35.6 1963 30.7 1964 40.4 1965 35.8 reported induced abortion increased with the length of stay in Santiago. The same author with Monreal provides a rural-urban comparison of the hospitalized postabortion cases per 1,000 women, aged 15 to 45 (23). Provinces 24.3 22.9 24.2 18.1 26.3 As mentioned earlier, the rural-urban differential in South Korea is such that the urban rate was four to five times greater than the rural (31). In the Japanese studies by Koya's group (64) the average number of induced abortions per 100 women was 120 in rural areas, 130 in medium-sized cities, and 140 in large urban areas. Dissemination of Small Family-Size Norms A change from large to small family-size norms accompanied the demographic transition in the West during the 19th and 20th centuries. Although the desired family size in the developing nations of Asia, Africa, and Latin America is still larger than that of countries in Europe and North America, a profound shift in attitude has been taking place, and smaller family-size norms and the concept of family planning are gaining acceptance in even the most traditional of societies. (See Table 6.) Apparently this shift has occurred in response to the cultural, economic, and demographic changes that followed World War II. A striking observation made from abortion surveys is that many women who resort to abortion usually have, or desire, a relatively small number of children. Furthermore, abortion rates tend to show a sharp increase once the desired family size is reached. This trend can be identified in both developed and less developed countries. In the developed countries of eastern Europe, for example, where actual and desired family size are relatively low, induced abortion appears to be a major determinant of the minimal disparity between actual and desired family size. In Romania, Mehlan (46) reported that in 1963 between 85 and 97 percent of the women applying for abortion had two or fewer children. In Hungary, Miltenyi (66) reported that women with two or fewer living children compose about 70 percent of the abortion clienteleŚ11 percent with no children, 28 percent with one, and 30 percent with two living children. In Czechoslovakia in 1960, 45.3 percent of the sample explained that the ideal family size had been reached; only 12.7 percent gave illness as the reasononomic, and demographic changes gains momentum. In societies in which modernization factors have intensified desires to limit family size, while the availability and acceptance of effective contraceptive methods are limited, there are numerous implications for induced abortion.